Aerobic or cardiovascular endurance.
Aerobic (cardiovascular) fitness is one of the most important components of physical fitness.The other components are muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility and low-back function. Cardiovascular fitness is measured as the amount of oxygen transported in the blood and pumped by the heart to the working muscles and as the efficiency of the muscles to use that oxygen.
Having good cardiovascular fitness has many health benefits. For example, it decreases your risk of cardiovascular diseases, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes and other diseases.
Cardiovascular fitness is related to age, gender, exercise habits, heredity and cardiovascular clinical status. Maximum values occur between ages 15 and 30 years, decreasing progressively with age.
According to the American Council on Exercise (ACE), muscular strength is the maximal force a muscle or muscle group can exert during a contraction. But there are other factors that affect how strong you are and how much strength you have to complete daily chores or exercises.
Muscular endurance : The ability of your muscles to exert force against resistance over a sustained period of time.
Muscular power : The combination of muscular force and the speed of movement
When you include strength training in your exercise program you build lean muscle mass and improve your metabolism.
The specific type of muscular endurance used during cardiovascular fitness activities such as running, swimming, or cycling is usually called cardiovascular endurance or cardiorespiratory endurance and is different from the strength training definition.
The stronger a muscle is the easier it is to complete a given task — for example, propelling a runner forward. The less work the muscle has to do, the more energy it has to go the distance. Strong, efficient muscles also don’t require as much blood and oxygen, so they put less strain on the heart which resulting in greater endurance.
According to the American Council on Exercise (ACE), flexibility is defined as “the range of motion of a given joint or group of joints or the level of tissue extensibility that a muscle group possesses.”
Many factors are taken into account when establishing personal flexibility: joint structure, ligaments, tendons, muscles, skin, tissue injury, fat (or adipose) tissue, body temperature, activity level, age and sex all influence an individual’s range of motion about a joint.
Body composition is a method of describing what the body is made of. It includes fat, protein, minerals and body water. It also describes weight more accurately than BMI. Body composition analysis can accurately show changes in fat mass, muscle mass, and body fat percentage.
Weighing yourself on a regular bathroom scale does not truly assess your body composition because a regular scale cannot tell how much of your total weight is comprised of water, fat, or muscle.